Kurumsal İletişim Nedir?

KURUMSAL İLETİŞİM

Kurumsal iletişim genel anlamda işletmelerin genel amaçlarına ulaşmak ve amaçlarını gerçekleştirmeye yönelik stratejilerini uygulamak için planladıkları tüm iletişim çalışmalarının bir entegrasyonudur.[1] Kurumsal iletişim, kurumun değerlerini, davranış biçimlerini hedef kitlelere anlatamıyorsa, hedef kitlelerin kurumu algılamaları yetersiz olacaktır. İletişimsiz değerler ve stratejiler anlaşılmayacak yada sahiplenilmeyecektir.[2]

Kurumun tüm yatay ve dikey iletişim hareketlerinin toplamı olarak belirtilen kurumsal iletişim, organizasyonun hem iç hem de dış iletişimini sağlayan kanal olarak iletişim disiplini içerisinde değerlendirilir. Günümüz modern organizasyonlarında süreklilik ve kalıplaşmış bir organizma olan kurumsal kültür, hiyerarşik organizasyonlarda tarihi süreç içerisinde gelişip kurum kültürünü insan kaynakları yönetimi ile kurum içine aktaran, halkla ilişkiler ve reklam araçları ile hedef kitleye belirten bir organizmalar bütünü olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Kurumun ürün veya hizmet verdiği kitleye karşı kullandığı renk, logo, slogan ve görsellerin tamamı kurumsal iletişimin araçlarını oluşturmaktadır. Süreç esası yönünden kurumsal iletişim, birbirleri ile bütünleşik farklı mekanizma olarak değerlendirilmeli ve aralarındaki güçlü bağlar doğru analiz edilip kurum kültürünü güçlü bağlar ile hem iç hem de dış kitleye doğru biçimde aktarılması sağlanmalıdır. Vizyon ve misyonun belirlenmesi, toplam kalite esaslarının standartlaştırılması, insan kaynakları yönetimi, halkla ilişkiler ve reklam olarak kurumsal iletişim süreci yönetilmeli ve uygulamaya alınmalıdır.

1.Vizyon ve Misyon

Vizyon, organizasyonların hedeflerini ve gelecekteki yerini konumlandırma amacını belirtir. Organizasyon gelişim süreci ile ilgili bilgiler veren vizyon, organizasyonun sahip olduğunu değil olacağı hakkında hedefleri belirler ve kitleye bu bilgileri kısa bildirgeler ile belirtir. Misyon ise organizasyonun kurulma amacı ve yaptığı hizmet hakkında bilgi verir. Hedef kitlesini, uyguladığı faaliyeti açıklar ve varolan durumunu belirtir.

Misyon, organizasyonu var eden olguya karşı kendisini var ettiğini belirtir ve bu olguya karşı nasıl yarar ve/veya çözüm bulabileceğini açıklar, kurumun bu olguya karşı kalıplaştırdığı kurum kültürünü belirtir. Vizyon ise geleceği hedef kitlesine gösterir ve organizasyonun neden olduğu misyonunu gelecekte nasıl ve ne şekilde olacağını resmini çizer.

Hiyerarşik organizasyonlarda vizyon ve misyonun belirlenmesi, kurum kültürünü ile ilintilidir. Kurum kültürü hiyerarşik organizasyonu var eden en önemli unsurdur. Bu kültürün oluşmasında vizyon ve misyonun doğru belirlenmesi ve hedef kitleye doğru aktarılması açısından önemlidir. Doğru belirlenmeyen vizyon ve misyon, hedef kitlede istenilen imajı sağlayamamakla birlikte organizasyon varlığının gerekselliğini sorgulatacaktır. Bu durumun hedef kitlede yaşanmaması adına vizyon ve misyonun doğru belirlenmesi, kurumsal iletişim sürecinde gereklidir.

2. Toplam Kalite Yönetimi

            Hiyerarşik organizasyonlarda toplam kalite anlayışı diğer organizasyonlardan farklı olarak hizmet kalitenin arttırılmasına dönük yönetim anlayışıdır. Bu anlayışın tüm kademelerde aynı orantıda ve anlayışta gelişmesi adına kurumsal iletişim modelinde kullanımı gerekmektedir. Toplam kalite felsefesi tüm kademelerin aynı oranda ve aynı anlayışta, kurum kültürüne, kurum vizyonuna ve kurum geçmişine bağlı kalarak yürüttükleri faaliyet toplamıdır. Bu yaklaşımın tüm organizasyonda doğru yönetimi, toplam kalite yönetiminin kendi felsefesi olan sürekli gelişim anlayışına katkı sağlamakla birlikte kurumun faaliyet kalitesini ile birlikte kurum kültürü ve kurum imajına da pozitif katkı sağlayacaktır.

            Kalite, bir ürün veya hizmetin belli bir standartta üretilmesi veya sunulması anlamına gelmekle birlikte toplam kalite anlayışı bu standartların kurumun tamamında aynı standardı yakalayıp sunulması anlamına gelmektedir. Toplam kalite yönetimi bu standardın sürekli gelişimini gösterir. Toplam Kalite Yönetimi; uzun vadede hedef kitlenin tatmin olmasını, başarmayı, kendi, çalışanı ve toplum için avantajlar elde etmeyi amaçlayan, kalite üzerine yoğunlaşmış ve tüm çalışanların katılımına dayanan bir yönetim modelidir.[3] Toplam kalite yönetimi anlayışının tüm organizasyona aktarılması adına insan kaynakları yönetimi bir araç olarak kullanılırken hedef kitleye aktarılmasında da halkla ilişkiler ve reklam güçlü bir araç olarak kullanılır.

3. İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi

İnsan kaynakları kavramı kurumsal hedeflere ulaşmada örgütlerin kullanmak zorunda oldukları temel kaynaklardan biri olan beşeri kaynağı ifade eder. Bu kavram, örgütün bünyesinde bulunan en üst yöneticiden en alt düzeydeki işgörenlere kadar tüm çalışanları kapsadığı gibi, örgütün dışında bulunan ve potansiyel olarak yararlanılabilecek işgücünü de kapsar.[4]

Kurumsal iletişim açısından insan kaynakları yönetimi; kurum kültürünün, organizasyonun vizyon-misyonun ve toplam kalite yönetimi anlayışının tüm personele aktarılması, insan kaynakları yönetim felsefesi içerisinde barındırılması gereken bir anlayıştır.

İnsan kaynakları yönetimi organizasyon içerisindeki tüm personel ile yönetim arasındaki bağları kurmakta ve yönetim ile yönetilenler arasında bir kanal görevi görmektedir. Bu kanal üzerinden yönetimin iletileri yönetilen kademeye doğrudan aktarılır ve yönetimin organizasyon içerisindeki tüm uygulamaları bu kanal üzerinden yönetilenlere bildirilir. Kurumsal iletişimin iç kanalı olarak insan kaynakları yönetimi belirlenmiş ve insan kaynakları yönetimi bu disiplin içerisinde faaliyet göstermektedir.

4. Halkla İlişkiler ve Reklam

Halkla ilişkiler; örgütsel amaçların başarılmasına, felsefenin tanımlanmasına ve örgütsel değişimin kolaylaştırılmasına yardım eden bir yönetim fonksiyonudur. Halkla ilişkiler uygulayıcıları olumlu ilişki geliştirmek ve örgütsel amaçlar ile sosyal beklentiler arasında uyum yaratmak için, ilgili tüm iç ve dış kamuyla iletişim kurar. Halkla İlişkiler uygulayıcıları, bir örgütün bütün birimleri ve kamuları arasında etki ve anlayışın değiş tokuşunu teşvik eden örgütsel programları geliştirir, uygular ve değerlendirir.[5] Halkla ilişkiler, kurumun amaçları üzerine yapılanan, önem sırası kimi zaman tüketici, kimi zaman dağıtımcı ve çalışanlar gibi kurumun ve kampanyanın hedeflerine göre değişkenlik gösteren hedef kitlelerle gerçekleştirilen stratejik iletişim yönetimidir.[6]

Reklam; genel olarak medyada yer ve zaman satın alma eylemi olarak tanımlanmaktadır.[7] Günümüzdeki reklamcılığın alanının biraz daha geliştiği görülmektedir. Buna bağlı olarak da klasik reklam tanımı yetersiz kalmaktadır. Çünkü reklamda kullanılan araç ve yöntemler, günümüzde sadece gazete, radyo, televizyon gibi kitle iletişim araçlarıyla sınırlı değildir. Artık taşıt ve binalardan tutun, açık hava, internet, oyun reklamları, led ışıklı tabela, sms gibi birçok araç reklam amacıyla kullanılmaktadır.[8] Bununla birlikte günümüzün güçlü organizasyonları tarafından kullanılan ve amacı; kurumsal kimliğin tanıtılması, hedef kitleye belirtilmesi ve organizasyon imajının benimsetilmesi olan “Kurumsal Reklam” kavramı ortaya çıkmıştır.

Kurumsal iletişimin bir aracı olan halkla ilişkiler ve reklamcılık, hiyerarşik organizasyonlarda da uygulanan bir yöntemdir. Diğer organizasyon modellerine göre  az da olsa geride kalan hiyerarşik organizasyonlar, faaliyet gösterdikleri alanlarda kamu bilgilendirme modeli üzerinden hedef kitleye karşı en doğru iletileri bu kanal üzerinden göndermektedir.


[1] Tosun-M.Ü. İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi, s.175

[2] Ind-The Corparate Image, s.76

[3] Akın, Çetin, Erol-Toplam Kalite Yönetimi, s.3

[4] Öğüt, Akgemci ve Demirsel- Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, s.278

[5] Baskin vd.- Public Relations the Profession and the Practice, s.5

[6] Peltekoğlu-Halkla İlişkiler Nedir?, s.7

[7] Pohl-Public Relations: Designing Effective Communication, s.3

[8] Kalender- Kavram Olarak Halkla İlişkiler, Dünyada ve Türkiye’de Halkla İlişkilerin Tarihsel Gelişimi, s.8

Kurumsal İletişim Nedir?” için 35 yorum

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